Dear Friends, Colleagues, Nomads, and Outsiders:
Word pond is a curatorial content blog I build as one would a nest for wings and claws to take hold — on the intermediacies of eco-, geo-, and biopoetics, the weather, permaculture, photography, music, alternative media, visual arts, and poetry (Japanese-derived and open forms), for which I have either written short essays and poems or curated media to share.
I set out on this journey in March 2010. The calendar didn’t say Spring, but the cold rain in the rootstocks and legions of robins knew otherwise. That March day, I had brought home my recitations and readings of Chaucer, the late Jane Reichhold’s “Basho The Complete Haiku” (Kodansha: Tokyo, 2008) and, French philosopher and semiologist, Roland Barthes’s “A Lover’s Discourse, Fragments” (Hill and Wang: NY, 1977, translated from the French by Richard Howard). To set out on a pilgrimage in the dark, cold rain is near to Barthes’s figuration: “To try to write love is to confront the muck of language: that region of hysteria where language is both too much and too little, excessive and impoverished.”
It is an exciting time to create in this way and is little different from what Nathaniel Hawthorne wrote in his preface to the 1851 edition of his Twice-Told Tales — that he was writing as a way to “open an intercourse with the world.” So I begin mine.
(revised for past tense 11.10.13; updated September 11, 2016)
A Shorter Bio
Donna Fleischer’s free verse, traditional and experimental haiku and haibun and poems of ekphrasis appear in anthologies and journals worldwide: a glimpse of, A Hundred Gourds, Artis, Asahi Shimbun, A Vast Sky, Back Room Live!, Beyond the Grave, Bones, bottle rockets, cattails, Contemporary Haibun Volumes 4 and 15, Contemporary Haibun Online, Cornell University Mann Library’s Daily Haiku, Dreams Wander On, Esque, Exit Strata, Fiera Lingue, Frogpond, Haiku 21, Hummingbird, is/let, Journal of Renga & Renku volume 3, Kō, Lilliput Review, Mainichi Daily News, MayDay Magazine, Modern Haiku, moongarlic, Naugatuck River Review, On Barcelona, Otoliths, Peace Is a Haiku Song, Poets for Living Waters, Presence, roadrunner, Salamander Cove, Solitary Plover, South by Southeast, Spiral Orb, The #Occupy Wall Street Poetry Anthology, The Marsh Hawk Press Review, The Daily Art Source, tinywords, TRUCK, Under the Basho, Verse Osmosis, Wang Ping’s Kinship of Rivers, We Are All Japan, Woven, and Zen Space. < Periodic Earth > (Casa de Cinco Hermanas Press, Pueblo, CO, 2016), is her fourth chapbook. Other chapbooks are with Longhouse Publishers, useful knowledge press, and bottle rockets press. Fleischer’s earlier poems, for which she received the University of Hartford 1987 Creative Writing Award for Poetry, Virginia Hale, Ph.D. and George Michael Evica, Ph.D., judges are collected in the self-produced, Intimate Boundaries (Amazon).
Of Recent Note
Verse Osmosis: Poems and Translations by The Boiler House Poets, 2015 Tupelo Press – Mass MoCA Residency. 2017. Ann Dernier, editor. Available for purchase at Blurb.
Fleischer’s chapbook < Periodic Earth > has been published by Casa de Cinco Hermanas Press, Pueblo, CO, 2016, Kyle Laws, editor. August 2016. It may be purchased at Casa de Cinco Hermanas Press.
Her poetry has been awarded first prizes by the University of Hartford, the City of Nagoya Japan Board of Education, the Under the Basho 2014 International Haiku Competition, South by Southeast Editors’ Choice Award, and honorable mentions from the Vancouver Cherry Blossom Haiku Invitationals.
Fleischer is an Arts New England magazine contributing writer for the arts in Connecticut. [Somewhere Between Creation and Destruction by Donna Fleischer See more at Art New England, Sept/Oct 2014].
Her poetry is housed in: the Japanese Museum of Haiku Literature, Tokyo; Poets House, NYC; University of Massachusetts Amherst DuBois Library; the Canadian Haiku Society; California State Library Haiku Archives at Sacramento; and The Haiku Foundation, Winchester, VA.
Fleischer’s essay, The Black Swans of Ellen Carey: Of Necessary Poetic Realities (2010, 2014), is based on the art works of Ellen Carey, the ground-breaking, lens-based artist. It is the print catalogue essay (Akus Gallery and Eastern Connecticut State University, Willimantic, CT, 2014) to the exhibition “Let There Be Light: The Black Swans of Ellen Carey”.
FIVE POEMS, written by Donna Fleischer, interrelating basketball, badminton, and baseball, are exhibited in LOCKER. ROOM. CULTURE. (Strategy, Play and Commentary in Sports and Art). This traveling exhibition, curated by Glenn LaVertu (The New School), who also wrote the catalogue essay, opened in 2015 at the Grimshaw-Gudewicz Art Gallery of Bristol Community College, Fall River, MA, and traveled to Central Connecticut State University, Samuel S. T. Chen Fine Arts Center, New Britain, CT that same year. Other exhibition artists include Sol LeWitt, Adrian Mangel, Frank J. Miles, Brendan Mulcahy, Kinga Wlodarska, and May Yao.
Legendary poet Sonia Sanchez honored Fleischer’s haiku with its inclusion in the 2013 anthology Peace Is A Haiku Song, where it joins the voices of Sonia Sanchez, Toni Morrison, Maya Angelou, Nikki Giovanni, Toi Derricotte, Alice Walker, Frank Sherlock, Yolanda Wisher, Michael McClintock, Tyrone McDonald, Kala Ramesh, Penny Harter, and others. The book may be purchased at http://muralarts.org/content/peace-haiku-song-0.
The useful knowledge press (New Haven, CT) published HaiKube™ No. 1 (December 2014), the first in a projected set of nine three-dimensional haiku broadsides by Fleischer, partnered with an original engraving by Allan Greenier. The letterpress poem and engraving are imposed on a lightweight cube composed of British paper Davey Boards wrapped by Arches paper letterpressed on 3 sides with this haiku (Presence, Martin Lucas, editor. UK)
peony – / a bulls’-eye of ants / within
Each side measures 2 and 5/8 in. HaiKube™ No.1 is $20.00.
Email email@example.com for ordering information.
Poets for Living Waters (Amy King, Heidi Lynn Staples, Wendy Babiak, editors.) “Creating venues for poetry in support of healthy ocean communities” since the 2010 Gulf of Mexico BP Oil Spill and Ecocide, published “Mountain Meadow #71” in 2014 and other poems in 2010, including “The Golden Scorpion”.
Her haiku and tanka appear in the international poetry, prose, and art anthology, We Are All Japan (2012, Robert D. Wilson & Saša Važić, editors). This was a gift to the Japanese people as they began their struggle with the ongoing, devastating effects of The 2011 Tokyo Earthquake, Tsunami, and Nuclear Meltdown from which interminable radiation exposure has proved deadliest. A copy was presented to the Emperor and Empress of Japan and other copies were donated to libraries and schools in the affected towns.
Fleischer wrote the poem “a lit match sputters” in support of the #Occupy Wall Street Movement. It was published in The #Occupy Wall Street Poetry Anthology, (Stephen Boyer and Filip Marinovich, editors; 908 pages perfect-bound and printed by THE SOURCE UNLTD, East Village, NYC, 2011. The editors had solicited and compiled poems throughout and following the twelve-week, above-ground #Occupy Wall Street movement that began in the fall of 2011 in Zuccoti Park, New York City. The Anthology includes poems by Adrienne Rich, Jonathan Skinner, Charles Bernstein, Eileen Myles, Jared Stanley, Seamus Heaney, James Scully, Burt Kimmelman, Martin Espada, Stephen Collis, Wanda Coleman, Anselm Berrigan, CA Conrad, Ariana Reines, Edgar Garcia, Krystal Languell, Minnie Bruce Pratt, Lynne-DeSilva-Johnson, Samuel Ace, Vincent Katz, Kevin Killian, Sparrow, Danny Schechter, Donna Fleischer and so many others. Order a copy from THE SOURCE UNLTD, NYC and donate it to your local library: 212.473.7833 or thesourceunltd.com.
< Periodic Earth >. Casa de Cinco Hermanas Press, Pueblo, CO, 2016. It may be purchased at Casa de Cinco Hermanas Press.
Twinkle, Twinkle. Longhouse Publishers, Guilford, VT, 2010.
indra’s net. bottle rockets press, Wethersfield, CT. 2003. Out of print and available free to read at Scribd: http://www.scribd.com/doc/132231015/indra-s-net . The noted poet, Charlie Mehrhoff , wrote: “this frequented bookshelf here, less than three feet in length. T.C. McLuhan’s Touch the Earth. ’55 Leaves of Grass. The Lost Lunar Baedeker. Ring of Bone. The Tao Te Ching. The Thirteen Petalled Rose. Rumi. Blaga. Reznikoff. Perse. Char. Rimbaud. others . . . what moves me most. for what it’s worth, where indra’s net resides.”
Intimate Boundaries. Self-produced from film negatives, offset web and sheetfed presses, and perfect-bound, Hartford, CT 1991. This collection of the poet’s early poetry includes the six poems for which she received the University of Hartford 1987 Creative Writing Award for Poetry, Virginia Hale, Ph.D. and George Michael Evica, Ph.D., judges. It may be purchased at Amazon.
Some Other Core Samplings
Fiera Lingue published a set of seven new poems in 2011, honoring Donna Fleischer to be among “those poets I evaluate as representative of our times” (Anny Ballardini, editor, publisher).
Fleischer’s haiku featured daily throughout the month of June 2010 at The Cornell University Mann Library’s Daily Haiku (Tom Clausen, editor).
The popular blog of Lilliput Review, Issa’s Untidy Hut, by Don Wentworth, editor of Lilliput Review and author of the poetry selections Past All Traps and Yield to the Willow, featured Fleischer’s essay, The American Haibun, and her poem, On Usedom.
Beginning in 2009 through 2014, Fleischer’s poetry regularly appeared at the CT Environmental News website (Christopher Zurcher, editor). CT Environmental Headlines is a daily, online index of environmentally-related newspaper and magazine articles relevant to Connecticut and proven invaluable to teachers, legislators, and eco-aware practitioners.
“Pink Slip”, a haibun, may be found in the rhizomatic magazine Exit Strata Print! Volume 2 (Brooklyn, 2013), as well as her essay “Field Notes from indra’s net and Pretty soon there’s my arm” in Exit Strata online; two poems – “in the bare spindly tree” and “traffic cone” were published in Solitary Plover; and “tree shadows” came out in roadrunner. “Please Stand By” was published by esque magazine (Amy King, Ana Božičević, editors) in their third issue, REVOLUTIONesque (2012); and On Barcelona (Halvard Johnson, editor) published a haibun “kHyal’s Barcelona” (2012) and “cell’d”, a free verse poem.
Curtis Dunlap, poet and editor of Blogging Along Tobacco Road, featured Donna’s work in his interview, Three Questions.
Contemporary Haibun Online published Kingdom of the Pansy.
Fleischer was assistant editor of bottle rockets, a journal of the small poem and of bottle rockets press anthologies and serial volumes from 2007 to 2013.
Feature readings include: Celebrate Bloomfield!, Prosser Library, Bloomfield, CT (2016); Hartford Loves Poetry, Hartford Public Library, Downtown Hartford CT (2015); Infinite Well Poetry Series, New Haven, CT (2014); The New Britain Museum of American Art, New Britain, CT (2013 & 2011); Capital Community College, Hartford, CT (2013); Forbes Library, Northampton MA (2013); WordForge Reading Series at Billings Forge, Hartford, CT (2012, 2010); cell39 gallery, Ludlow, MA (2012); and Pegasus Gallery of Middlesex Community College, Middletown, CT (2011).
Fleischer is listed with Poets & Writers, Fiera Lingue, The Living Haiku Anthology, and The Haiku Foundation, which seeks to establish the importance of haiku “as a literary vehicle in the present and future”. She is a member of VIDA: Women in the Literary Arts and the United Haiku and Tanka Society.
Awards and Other Honors
“Cold sun” by Donna Fleischer received the Nagoya City, Japan Board of Education Award for Best Haiku. It was submitted by Dr. Kōko Katō, editor and publisher of Kō*, where it had appeared in Kō vol 28 no 4. She made the announcement with her commentary on the poem in the new issue of Kō vol 29 no 4, autumn-winter 2014.
The edited journal, Under the Basho, honored Donna Fleischer’s poem “late winter –” First Prize in its 2014 Under the Basho International Haiku Contest, that brought with it a $500 cash award and a print broadside.
“Night Shift”, 2014 Semi-Finalist, 5th Annual Naugatuck River Review Poetry Competition
Honourable Mention Recipient – earth day haiku and short essay by Donna Fleischer , Vancouver Cherry Blossom 2013 Haiku Invitational
“Your Closet”, 2013 Semi-Finalist, 4th Annual Naugatuck River Review Poetry Contest
Recipient of the Merit 2011 Honorable Mention for best anthology, seed packets ~ Stanford M. Forrester, editor, Donna Fleischer, contributing editor. Seed Packets: An Anthology of Flower Haiku. Windsor, Connecticut: bottle rockets press, 2010. 5 x 6.5 inches,100 pages, perfectbound.ISBN 978-0-9792257-4-1.
Honourable Mention Recipient Vancouver Cherry Blossom 2011 Haiku Invitational
South by Southeast Editors’ Choice Award for Haiku, 2010
University of Hartford 1987 Creative Writing Award for Poetry
Donna Fleischer and Lori Anderson Moseman read at Infinite Well, New Haven, CT on April 26, 2014. “come to silence / come to language / the way it comes . . .’ with deep appreciation to Lori Anderson Moseman, Donna Fleischer, Christina O’Connor, and Infinite Well for a beautiful, rainy reading to bring April to an intricate close,” wrote poet Katie Yates, afterwards.
From green tea and honey in a jar, adjacent viridescent walls, window seats, zafus, chairs, and wooden floor, poems became, from between the reading side and the listening side, responded Donna Fleischer.
“A Cat’s Footprints” was published by A Hundred Gourds 3:3 on June 1, 2014.
A Shisan Renku was composed on Skype by: Taro Kunugi, Japan; Kris Moon – sabaki, Japan; Donna Fleischer, Dennis Chibi Holmes, and William Sorlien, USA. (2013).
Anthology Print Publications
2017 Verse Osmosis : Poems and Translations by The Boiler House Poets, 2015 Tupelo Press – Mass MoCA Residency. 2017. Blurb. Ann Dernier, editor. Available for purchase at Blurb.
2016 Beyond the Grave: Afterlife Haiku, Robert Epstein, editor. Modern English Tanka Press.
2015 A Vast Sky, Tuttle Publishing, Bruce Ross, editor.
2015 HAIKU 2015, edited by Scott Metz and Lee Gurga, Modern Haiku Press, 2015, 100 notable haiku from 2014 selected by the editors of the award-winning Haiku 21.
2014 Contemporary Haibun, volume 15, Red Moon Press, Jim Kacian, editor.
2014 HAIKU 2014, edited by Scott Metz and Lee Gurga, Modern Haiku Press, 2014, 100 notable haiku from 2013 selected by the editors of the award-winning Haiku 21. Perfectbound, 110 pages.
2013 The haiku “private keep off” appears in Peace Is A Haiku Song (The City of Philadelphia Mural Arts Program, Sonia Sanchez and Yolanda Wisher, editors)
2013 Kamesan’s World Haiku Anthology on War, Violence and Human Rights Violation (Kamesan Books, Dimitar Anakiev, editor)
2012 The tanka, “American kid” and two haiku — “Samurai bones” and “Hototogisu” appear in We Are All Japan anthology (Alley Cat Books, ltd; Robert D. Wilson & Saša Važić, editors)
2012 “The Red Photogram”, a haibun, appears in Visions, Voices, and Verses, An Anthology of Poems of Ekphrasis, based on permanent art works in the New Britain Museum of American Art, New Britain, CT. Exiles Press Colin Haskins, Andrea Barton, editors
2011 The #Occupy Wall Street Poetry Anthology. Stephen Boyer and Filip Marinovich, editors. THE SOURCE UNLTD, East Village, NYC, 2011
2011 Dreams Wander On, Contemporary Poems of Death Awareness. Robert Epstein, editor. Modern English Tanka Press. Baltimore
2010 seed packets, an anthology of flower haiku, bottle rockets press. Windsor, CT
2007 lanterns, a firefly anthology, bottle rockets press. Windsor, CT
2003 Contemporary Haibun Volume 4, Red Moon Press. Winchester, VA
2003 The Haiku Society of America (HSA) Members’ Anthology. NY, NY
2002 bits of itself, HSA Members’ Anthology. NY, NY
1995 Charter Oak Poets ii, A Poetry Anthology. Anthony Keller, editor. Charter Oak Cultural Center. Hartford, CT
1994 Wadsworth Atheneum New England Docents Catalogue.
Robert Saunders, editor. Hartford, CT
Print and Online Periodical Publications
1999 – the present:
a glimpse of (Dimitra Ioannou, editor, Athens, Greece)
A Hundred Gourds 3:3 June 2014 (William Sorlien, Renku Editor)
Artis Magazine (Will Steigerwald, editor, Hartford, CT)
Asahi Shimbun Newspaper (Japan)
Back Room Live ! (Valyntina Grenier, editor)
Blogging Along Tobacco Road (Curtis Dunlap, editor)
Bones (Alan Summers, Aditya Bahl, and Johannes S. H. Berg, editors)
bottle rockets (Stanford M. Forrester, editor)
cattails (United Haiku & Tanka Society editors)
Contemporary Haibun, Vols 4 and 15 (Red Moon Press, Jim Kacian, editor)
Contemporary Haibun Online (Jim Kacian, Bruce Ross, and Ken Jones, editors)
esque magazine (Amy King and Ana Božičević, editors)
Exit Strata (Lynne Desilva-Johnson, managing editor)
Fiera Lingue (Anny Ballardini, editor)
Frogpond (NY, NY)
Hummingbird (the late Phyllis Walsh, editor, Madison, WI)
Issa’s Untidy Hut (Don Wentworth, editor)
is/let (Scott Metz, editor)
Journal of Renga and Renku, volume 3 (Norman Darlington, editor)
Kinship of Rivers (Wang Ping, editor)
Kō (Dr. Kōko Katō, editor, Nagoya, Japan)
Lilliput Review (Don Wentworth, editor, Pittsburgh, PA)
MayDay Magazine (Okla Elliott, editor, New American Press, Milwaukee, WI))
Modern Haiku (Charles Trumbull, editor, Evanston, IL)
moongarlic (Brendan Slater and Sheila Windsor, editors)
Naugatuck River Review (Lori Desrosiers, editor, Westfield, MA)
On Barcelona (Halvard Johnson, editor)
Otoliths (Mark Young, editor, Australia)
Poets for Living Waters (Amy King and Heidi Lynn Staples, editors)
Presence (Martin Lucas, editor, England)
Roadrunner (Scott Metz, editor)
Salamander Cove (Annie Wyndham, editor)
Solitary Plover (Amy Lutzke, editor)
South by Southeast (Stephen Addis, Josh Hockensmith, editors, Midlothian, VA)
Spiral Orb (Eric Magrane, editor)
The Daily Art Source (Chris Mansel, editor)
The Journal newspaper, Bloomfield, CT Poetry Showcase, (Tom Nicotera, editor)
The Living Haiku Anthology (Don Baird and Sheila Windsor, co-editors)
The Mainichi Daily News (Japan)
The Marsh Hawk Press Review (Eileen R. Tabios, Guest Editor, NY)
tinywords ( d. f. tweney, editor)
TRUCK (Anny Ballardini, Guest Editor, November 2014 issue)
TRUCK (Eileen R. Tabios, Guest Editor, March 2015, issue)
Under the Basho (Don Baird and Kala Ramesh, co-editors)
Zen Space (Marie Marshall, editor)
Feature and Group Readings
A Sampling of Bloomfield Poets – feature readings by Bloomfield poets, including Tom Nicotera, Marilyn Johnston, and Donna Fleischer, as part of Celebrate Bloomfield 2016! Prosser Public Library, June 4, 2016.
Naugatuck River Review issue 12 Launch Reading at Forbes Library, Northampton, MA, October 4, 2014.
Donna Fleischer and Lori Anderson Moseman read at Infinite Well, New Haven, CT, curated by Katie Yates and Christina O’Connor, on April 26, 2014.
Hartford Loves Poetry: Among 24 presenters of poems in languages such as Quechua, Tamil, Mandarin, Bosnian, Hindi, Kenyang, Hebrew, Ukrainian, and Spanish, were poet Donna Fleischer who read three of her original poems in English, alternating with Bettina Viereck who read her translations of Fleischer’s poems into the German. Their readings can be found 23 minutes and 51 seconds into the two-and-a-half-hour video. April 19, 2014: HARTFORD LOVES POETRY with Bessy Reyna, Hartford Public Library, Downtown Hartford, in honor of multi-lingual poems and their English translations. (2015)
The New Britain Museum of American Art (NBMAA), “A Home of One’s Own”, a project in support of the New Britain Mayor’s Ten-Year Workplan to End Homelessness, sponsored and televised by the City of New Britain, the University Museum Community Collaborative, and the New Britain Museum of American Art, New Britain, CT (April 2013)
Release reading by winners of Winter 2014 contest issue of the Naugatuck River Review, 1 pm Forbes Library, Northampton, MA, March 8, 2014.
National Arts Program Foundation 2013 22nd Annual Competition in collaboration with the Community Renewal Team and the Free Poets Collective, Poems of Ekphrasis, Hartford, CT (January 2013)
WordForge Reading Series, Hartford, CT, one of two featured readers (12.10.12)
Prosser Public Library, Wintonbury Branch, Bloomfield, CT, one of two featured readers (12.6.2012)
The New Britain Museum of American Art, New Britain, CT (2012)
Forbes Library, Northampton, MA (2012)
Stephen Persing’s Art Note, UnRegular Radio Boston: The Red Photogram, a poem by Donna Fleischer (2011)
cell39 gallery, Indian Orchard, MA (2011)
Pegasus Gallery of Middlesex Community College, Middletown, CT (2010)
WordForge Reading Series at Billings Forge, Hartford, CT (2010)
Windsor Public Library, Windsor, CT (2009)
Prosser Public Library, Bloomfield, CT (2000)
Saint Joseph College, West Hartford, CT (1998)
MS Gallery, New Britain, CT (1996)
Artworks, Hartford, CT (1995)
Buttonwood Tree, Middletown, CT (1995)
Published Essays by Donna Fleischer
Earth Day, April 2014 essay on the writing of the Vancouver Cherry Blossom Haiku Invitational Honourable Mention poem by Donna Fleischer titled “earth day” at the request of the editor.
The Black Swans of Ellen Carey: Of Necessary Poetic Realities (2010, 2014). This is the essay to the exhibition catalogue “Let There Be Light: The Black Swans of Ellen Carey” published by Akus Gallery and Eastern Connecticut State University. The catalogue in full is available for viewing, and the essay may be read in its entirety, by clicking on this link: See the catalogue for the exhibit.
Poetry and Money (#7): Donna Fleischer | A 3-Question Interview, A Sample Poem, and Book List Feature, part of the 2014 “Money and Poetry” series originated by poet Eileen R. Tabios.
“The American Haibun” by Donna Fleischer (Donna Fleischer © 2008, Lilliput Review, Don Wentworth, editor, 2011).
Broadsides of Poems by Donna Fleischer
The 2014 Under the Basho International Haiku Contest First Prize haiku “late winter –” by Donna Fleischer is embossed on a broadside depicting the classical Japanese poet Issa, seated beneath the willow tree of which he wrote, and with seal.
The haiku “rail cars stacked with wood” by Donna Fleischer, was ink-stamped and illustrated on recycled plastic by poet and artist Lily Brown, on January 17, 2011, in Athens Georgia (pressing on press, Heidi Lynn Staples, editor).
The haiku “fish clouds birds” by Donna Fleischer, 11 in. x 17 in. four-color process, was offset-printed on recycled, 100lb glossy stock (Connecticut River Coastal Conservation District, Inc., 2009).
Interviews with Donna Fleischer
“Donna Fleischer – Haibun: Three Questions” (Blogging Along Tobacco Road, Curtis Dunlap, editor, 2011)
“Donna Fleischer on Creativity” (Miriam’s Well, an online interview by writer, artist, and editor Miriam Sagan, 2013)
Literary Arts Exhibition
April 9 –30, 2011 — “UNTITLED: Graphic Books, Art Books, and Literary Art Illustrating a Diverse World”. Curated by Stephanie Elliott, Publicist, Wesleyan University Press. MAC650 gallery, Middletown, CT. three poetry chapbooks by Donna Fleischer on exhibit: Twinkle, Twinkle (Longhouse Publishers, 2010), indra’s net (bottle rockets press, 2003), and Intimate Boundaries (self-produced, 1991).
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